THE DIVINE CREATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

THE DIVINE CREATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION:

The Experience of the Teaching of Evolution in Russian Secondary School

 MURAVNIK GALINA

Orthodox Lyceum of Spiritual Culture named after Venerable Seraphim of Sarov

34/1, 3 rd Parkovaja st., 105043 Moscow, Russia;

 St.Andrew’s Biblical theological institute 3,  Jerusalem st.,  109316 Moscow, Russia.

 
Muravnik G., The    Divine   Creation    and biological   Evolution:   the Experience of    the Teaching of   Evolution in   Russian Secondary School // in: Divine   Action   and Natural Selection: Science, Faith and Evolution. Seckbach J.& Gordon R. (eds),  Singapore: World Scientific. 2009.
 
1.  The Problems of Teaching Evolution in Russian Secondary Schools

  For many years I have tried to find the answer to a question, whether science, in particular – evolutionary biology, is capable of contributing to the Christian education and formation of religious world outlook in schoolboys. Whether the study of mysteries of the development of living nature contributes to the most mystical of processes – the Knowledge of God? And if so, what should the relationship between the secular and religious in a school course of biology be?

      In Russia at the beginning of the 90s the official ban on religious education was removed, and soon a lot of orthodox schools were created. Now only in Moscow there are about 30 comprehensive schools of the kind. Similar schools exist in many towns of Russia. The teachers of biology working at orthodox schools of Russia, whether they want it or not, at each lesson have to search for their own answer to the question on the relationship between Christian religious doctrine and modern natural sciences. The situation is exacerbated by  the fact that for the time being  there are no special school programs created for orthodox schools. It also applies  to the biology as a subject mandatory for all Russian schools.

      But the current version of modern education, which is offered in natural sciences, can be called «school of atheism», as they radically exclude a Christian view on creation. And it is impossible to solve this problem, which requires urgent revision, by simple and quick methods like reprinting old, pre-revolutionary school textbooks and programs. A new approach based on achievements of sciences of the 20th century is necessary.

      On the relationship between  science and divinity there is rather a wide spectrum of opinions,  from a complete denial of  science as the product of  “fallen of man's mind” up to a complete denial  of the religious view on the world order and  calling science  “the new religion”. However there is another point of view, and I support it too. Its essence is that religion and science, belief and reason, are not confronted with each other, but are accepted as two ontologically interconnected paths leading to the knowledge of the Creator. Their interaction contributes to enrichment and development of each other. Anglican theologian and scientist John Polkinghorne has called it “friendship of a science and religion” (Полкинхорн Дж., 1997).  

      I am quite sure it is exactly on this beneficial course that both science and divinity will make the most considerable discoveries since this course widening the boundaries of our world outlook, implies the ascension to the summit of knowledge.    

   2.  The Situation at Orthodox Schools

  When we consider the situation at orthodox schools, the teacher has to maneuver skillfully between the program offered by the Russian Ministry of Education, and his own religious views of the world. As a matter of fact such practice brings into the minds of schoolchildren the basis for an inevitable spiritual crisis and an inner split. Some of them as they grow up label science as a “demonic occupation”, and reject it. Others gradually drift apart from the Church, losing live, sincere belief. At best they remain the nominal Christians, who only occasionally come into a Church. In the worst case skepticism born in their souls brings them to the camp of atheists.

      Such a situation cannot be acceptable, that is why it needs to be changed. But how? In my view, for a long time there have been the necessary for developing amodern concept of Christian natural sciences, however unusual this term may sound today.

 3. In Search of a New Conceptual  Space

 What kind of a conceptual space is needed in which the search and birth of modern Christian natural sciences is possible? And, above all, what are the problems of Christian natural sciences, which should be solved? They can be formulated as follows:

  •  to show convincingly, on the basis of modern scientific achievement actual conformity of scientific deductions to  what is disclosed in The Holy Writ and  developed in  the Christian divinity;
  •  to show that the Divine Will in the world is carried out through natural processes and laws which are a subject of the scientific research;
  •  to facilitate the formation of a Christian world outlook in the pupils, and, on his basis, of the system of harmonic relations with the God's world.

      This kind of a pedagogical method has a number of advantages. First of all, it enables not only to acquaint the schoolchildren with recent achievements of  biology, but also allows them to get in  touch with the most mystical secret, by feeling actual presence of God in the world. Thus the overlapping of scientific and religious views of the world should inevitably take place. We may say, that biology gives us a perfect opportunity to speak with the schoolchildren about the most sacred things on  the  basis of our belief, contributing  to the formation of a christian world outlook.

 4. The New Course – “Introduction to Christian Natural Sciences” and its Ideas

 I have created a special program for teaching in the Secondary School - the course “Introduction to Christian natural sciences”. It is intended for teaching in the10th and 11th forms of general educational orthodox schools of Russia. The basic purpose of the course is formation of the Christian world outlook in the school students on the basis of the data of modern sciences, withdrawal of a far-fetched “conflict of a science and religion” and, on the contrary, make them to think, that a scientific and religious views of the world can and should be indivisible, as the world created by the God is. This ontological integrity of Faith and Science (if we address summits of both) is caused by their common basis, i.e. " … one and the same Spirit" (1Сor., 12.11).

      The course which I offer is based on a principle of teleology(from Greek “Telos” – extremity, end, purpose), that ultimately leads to theology. The main idea is that the whole course is formed in such a way  that it constantly shows that the origin, development and formation of the world is the result of Divine creativity, that the creation was from the very beginning carried out according to some purpose – The God’s Design. The laws formulated by science, in particular, the so-called the anthropic principle proves the expediency of the world. Thus, the aim of science wholly and evolutionary biology in peculiarity is not just the study of the world for the sake of making life comfortable of the man or for the satisfaction of natural curiosity, but the comprehension of wisdom of the Creator through His traces in the world. Apostle Paul states this idea in the Message to Romans: “… Wherefore His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, since the creation of the world through examining of creations visual … “ (1.20).

      Thus, the task of the presented course developed on the basis of teleology is a consecutive continuous formation of Christian world outlook in the pupil on the basis of the data of modern evolutionary biology, perceived through a prism of Christian divinity. Actually the course of Christian natural sciences becomes a sort of the natural science of apologetics, one of the aims of which is the protection of the foundations of Christian dogmas against perversion and assaults. But the natural science of apologetic is a child of its time. It rates with those data, which are offered to it by a modern science. Therefore it is forced to be updated constantly, envolving in a circle of its interests all new discoveries which are made in science. It is  gratifying, that lately both scientists and theologists realized  the  productivity and necessity of a dialogue between science and religion. Logically and inevitably it is leading to interaction of belief and knowledge by a principle of complementarity. They, as two wings, are lifting the mankind to the heights of knowledge of Truth.

      I believe that the whole course “Introduction to Christian natural sciences” should be built around the text of 1-2 chapters of Book of Genesis. It is possible to say, that Six Days of Creation is some kind of “roll of the world”. And the aim of science is to unroll and to read it. But it is not necessary to try sense “to find” literally in the text of 1-2 chapters of Book of Genesis scientific laws or theories. This text is just the field of open questions and indication of the direction of scientific search.

      At the same time, the whole course should be formed around  the above mentioned  anthropic principle as a core, which enables us to see, to feel an excellently “tuned” universe, created not randomly, i.e. the only world, in which the God-like man, could appear and live.

      The Christian science, recognizing the world cognizable, by studying its laws, ultimately, approaches the comprehension of the reasonable design of the world, studying the world not in general, but  comprehending it as the God`s creation, as His creative workshop. It is not surprising that many scientists, not being formally members of the Church, through their  scientific investigations came to the idea of the God. As А.Einstein said: “…the belief in the sensibility of the world inspires the explorers”. This sensible world creation, more precisely the creation contemplated by the Creator and embodied in the material world according to the laws set by Him is the very subject of study in offered course “Introduction to Christian natural sciences”.

      So, the basic pedagogical aim is to equip the children with knowledge of evolution of living beings, which will allow them not only to work in  science professionally if they wish, but also to carry the light of Christian belief into the world.

 5. Feature and Principles of the Course

  The course is based on a historical-hierarchical principle. The program of the 10th form begins with the study of the molecular level of organization of  living  beings, (acquaintance with biological chemistry, molecular biology and molecular genetics). Further it goes step by step higher organizational levels including the acquaintance with biology of a cell, embryology, and also different fields of genetics (general genetics, genetics of the man, cytogenetics, genetics of populations, mutagenesis, genetical bases of selection, genetics engineering).

      All these sections of biology form  the theoretical base, which enables  us to study on a serious scientific level  in the 11th form such complex problems, as the origin of life, biological evolution of species, the origin of the man, by no means indifferent for Christian consciousness.   

      My choice differently of necessary scientific material is rather different from that generally studied at lessons. I use a historical principle. It seems to me extremely important not just to inform the pupils about this or that scientific fact of modern evolutionary biology, but to show them how long and difficult was the search for it. In this way the pupils get acquainted with a history of the origin scientific discoveries including not only successes, but retreats at times, delusions, dead-ends and search for the way out as well as further advance step by step approaching the knowledge of secrets of a nature. A lot of attention is also given to personalities of scientists, their lives, religious and philosophical views. It makes the conversation about a history of discovery emotional, stirring, invoking active interest in schoolchildren, and, as a consequence - better comprehension and mastering of the material.

      Besides I try to present discussed problems at a modern scientific level, and to include all new discoveries, taking into account that biology is an extremely dynamically developing science. Certainly, this approach considerably expands the volume of the studied material. But in this case much depends on the pedagogical skill of the teacher.

      When introducing this or that scientific problem, I try to present it in a wide historical prospective. For this purpose four time periods were selected: the Ancient world, the Middle Ages, New Time, Present Time. At every period we observe the development of scientific search, all interesting and important events, that took place in science; answers, which were found, as well as questions left without the answers for scientists of the following periods.   

      However the Present Time in which we live still does not know the answers too many questions. Within the framework of the course no attempt is intentionally made to present a modern pattern of the evolution absolutely completed. The main conclusion, which can be made after studying the given course, is that in modern evolutionary biology there are considerably more questions, than the answers given to them. But it is with a correctly formulated question that the way leading to a discovery starts. Therefore we should not be discouraged that many questions have yet no precise, universally recognized answers. They form an information field of open questions, where the further search is possible, and where the pupils are given the opportunity to reflect, to propose hypotheses. Thus, they can participate in a fascinating process of scientific creativity and test their abilities. It can be a start of their way to serious science.

       6. The Basic Methodological Principles of the Course

 The basic methodological principles used in studying the course “Introduction to Christian natural sciences” can be formulated as follows:

  •  Comparative historical approach, i.e. the problem of evolution is traced from the momentof its origination and realization by mankind;                 
  •  Acquaintance with a wide spectrum of ideas, theories, concepts, hypotheses offered by various scientificschools;                                                                                                                                                                  
  •  The use of original author's texts, instead of their popular adaptations;
  •  The  critical  analysis  of the  studied  theories, revealing disputable and problematic points;
  • Freedom of wide  discussion  after  finishing  the  study of  the problem of evolution;                        

 ·         Harmonization of the studied scientific concepts of evolution with  what is disclosed in the Holy Writ, the theological  analysis and understanding of the problem on  the basis of Holy Father`s and modern theology. 

      The basic theological idea of the course is its so-called conceptual dominant combining all educational material, and which this educational material should illustrate is the following: “Religion and science on the path to knowledge of Truth”. The word Truth is not casually written with a capital letter, as Christ Himself said to us: “I am the way, and the truth, and the life” (John, 14.6). Therefore the offered course, besides other things, is centered on Christ. The Light of Christ is the landmark, which helps us to not be mistaken in the search of Truth.

      The studying in the 11th form of evolutionary idea – the central problem of modern biology – is based on these principles.

 7. Argument of the Course: the History of the Idea of Evolution

  Schoolchildren study different points of view about evolution as deeply as possible. The formation and development of the idea of evolution is traced from the moment of its origin in the minds of ancient-Greek philosophers, like as Anaximander, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Aristotle (Воронин Н.Н.,1999).

      The result of this acquaintance is understanding that the philosophers of the Ancient world created and presented to the mankind pattern of the world for the first time. They conveyed to scientists of the modern time, as a testimony, a very deep idea of the gradual, expedient, historical development of nature. Of course, this pattern was very naïve, but the central place was lead off God (Νοῦς) – Creator, Initial Chaos, rules of the all creations. There is no conflict between scientific and religious views of the world in this period. But on the contrary, they form an organic whole, developing in a common spiritual space.  The science about nature hasn’t left that time it’s “cradle” – religious philosophy. The schism of science and religion hasn’t happen yet.         

      Later schoolchildren study the next historical period – the Middle Ages, when the attempt of Christianization of heathen wisdom was undertaken. Finally it led to the creation of the so-called rational theology.  The assignments of rational theology are the theological comprehension of nature. So the natural science of this period developed like one of the spheres of theology.  Therefore the creators of  Middle-Ages science were not scientists, but the great Christian theologians – John Chrysostom, Basil the Great, Gregory of  Nyssa, Gregory the Theologian, Augustine of Hippo, Thomas Aquinas, Albert the Great. (Св.Василий Великий, 1900, Св. Григорий Нисский, 1995, Св. Иоанн Златоуст, 1993).  They left their meditations – commentaries of the 1-2 chapters of the Book of Genesis. So developed the school of symbolic interpretation of the Bible. This commentaries of Six Days of Creation are lie in adjoining spheres, because the subject of theological comprehension is the material world, and its studying is the goal of the natural science.

      But from a certain time the figurative, poetical style of the Book of Genesis was considered as a strictly scientific one, and Six Days of Creation – as an absolutely exact, literal description of the pattern of creation. So developed the school of   literal interpretation of the Bible.  This school excludes any symbolycal or allegorical interpretation of the 1-2 chapters of the Book of Genesis.

      These two theological schools produced two trends in natural science:

 ·         transformism (from Latin “transformis”) – the idea of historical development of nature. This development is sent by  the Creator;

 ·         creationism (from Latin “creatio”) -  the idea that God created every species of plants and animals during the 3,5 and the 6 Days. Every Day of Creation continued 24 hours sharp. All species remain invariable from the period of  their creation. One species doesn’t  produce another. All these events happened about 7.5. thousand years  ago.

      I think  it is necessary to tell schoolchildren about the ideas of creationism, since it is a bright example of pseudoscientific and pseudo theological concept. It has a very deep contradiction both with science, and with orthodox theology.

      Schoolchildren must learn the history of separation of science and theology (doctrine of Thomas Aquinas about “Double Truth”) in the 13th century.

      The analysis of the theological (patrological) commentaries leads us to an important conclusion:  the idea about historical development of nature obtains a new sense. This sense is founded on the Bible Revelation and Christian divinity.

      Saint Gregory of Nyssa in the treatise “On the Arrangement of the Man” says: “The Nature … makes the way of the ascent from the smallest to the perfect” (Св. Григорий Нисский, 1995). This idea of the gradual ascent of nature from simple forms to more complicated links the Holy Fathers theology and the evolution.

      The main result of this period’s study is the following: science develops in the bosom of religion; aspiration to perceive the God’s world leads toforming the rational theology – a religious comprehension of nature. God–Creator has the central place in the pattern of the world.  All pattern of the world is pierced by feeling, that nature is a beautiful and harmonious creation of God; it is inflated with His Wisdom and Beauty.

       But the first signs of “the conflict” between science and religion appear in the later Middle Ages. “Knowledge is power” – said Francis Bacon in XVII cent.  This idea became thescientificmotto of the New Time. The scientists came to idea of unlimitedpower of science in the perception and transformation of the world. Bui it was a “bitter fruit of knowledge”. Deism was born, and this philosophic school took away the Creator out the frame of the universe. This universe without God became the object of  study of the new time’s science.

      Schoolchildren learn the proceedings of many scientists of this period:  Sh. Bonnet, G. de Buffon, E. Darwin (Дарвин Э., 1960),  J. Lamarck (Ламарк Ж.-Б. ,1955),  A. Wallas (Уоллес А.Р., (1911).  andof course,  Ch. Darwin. (Дарвин Ч., 1926).  We try to understand what is necessary to be accepted and which of these theories should be rejected, we also try realize, what we may take from this scientificheritage, and what not. However a review either one or another theory and even a fundamental difference of opinion keep us from a simpletrip eblame. At that we try to understand, what we may take from this scientificheritage, but or not. This traveling along the annals of history of evolutionary biology allows understanding the logic of the development of a problem, to find mistakes, to realize the causes of their appearance. It is necessary, if we want to move forwardon the way to Truth.

 8. Argument of the Course: the Current Status of the Idea of Evolution

  Thus after a deep study of history of the evolutional idea we proceed to the study of itscurrent status. At the lessons we start to discuss the evolutionary theories of Present Time.  We try toask our self a principal question: does the Divine Creation refute the biologicalevolution? Are Divine Creation and the biologicalevolution strong alternatives to each other or not?

      For a finding of the right answer it is necessary to understand clearly, what is theterm “evolution” today. This is a Latin word and comes from the verb “evolvo”.  As a scientific term it was for the first time use by Englishtheologian M. Heil (1609-1676). The modern scientific definition of the term “evolution” is the following: “Evolution is an irreversible, fairly directional process of historical change (modification) of the living nature” (“Biological Encyclopedia”, 1989).

      The schoolchildren learn the next doctrines of evolution of Present Time: Neo-Darwinism and “Punctuated equilibria” (Gould S., Eldredge N.) - so-called “Tychogenetics” theories (from Greek “τύχη”- fortuity), i.e. these theories arebased on a fortuitous events.

      Then the schoolchildren learn so-called “Teleological” theories (from Greek “τέλος” -aim, end): nomogenesis by L.S. Berg, (Берг Л.С., 1977), Christian evolutionism by P. Teilhard de Chardin (Шарден Пьер Тейяр, 1987), Diatropica by S.V. Meyen (Мейен С.В. , 1974),  the concept by A.A. Lubitschev  (Любищев А.А., 1982) and  others.

      Evolution is the fact of  the biological history, but it  can’t go on accidentally. Thisis the fundamental difference between tychogenetics and teleological theories. There is an issue:  has the evolutionan aim or not? Both theories answer thisquestion in different ways. Tychogenetics theories can’t be unite with the idea of Divine Creation, because all evolutionaldevelopment results fromfortuitousevents. In opposite to this, teleological theories permit suchopportunity and evenrequire a Creative Intelligent Power. This Power, i.e. God-Creator leads an evolutionary process. And we come back to our issue: can we unite scientific and religious points of view, religious pattern of the creation and the dates of the contemporary doctrine of evolution? Once more weappeal to the text of chapter 1 of Genesis and the theological commentaries.

   9. TheologicalAnalysis of the Idea of Evolution

 In verse 20 we read: “Then God commanded: Let the water be filled with many kinds of living beings, and let the air be filled with birds”. How does the creation of living beings occur?  God doesn’t act as a master, demiurge. Creator orders the water: “Let the water be filled…” And water generates “living beings”. And further: “So God created the great sea monsters, all kinds of creatures that made the water…”  John Chrysostom comments on that verse: “The word of Godbecame the action, and the command of God gave rise to the living beings and explaineda way of their origin” (Св. Иоанн Златоуст , 1993).

      In such a way, according to the pattern of Divine Creation living beings appear in water and then come totheland. “Then God commanded: Let the Earth produce all kinds of animal life…” (1.24). But science tells the same. Thus the idea of Divine Creation doesn’t contradict the scientificprinciples.

      It is importantto note that the Divine Creation is carried outby stages, i.e. the expansion or evolution of the species takes place.  But the evolution is not equal to the creation, because only things that exist already can evolve in someform, for example in the form of design (logos).

      Surely, the Divine Creation can’t have any analogies in our world. Possibly, there isthe reason of the impossibility to create living organism in vitro.  This is a direct evident of   theexistence of a principal cause of the being, and this cause is inaccessible for the scientificresearch. Yet the presence of such principal Cause (God's Law) doesn’t contradict the scientific laws.

      Attentive reading of the Story of Creation and the commentary for it allows feeling thefundamental scheme of the evolutionaryscale of rank – the Design of God develops step-by-step in the world. Scriptural Six day of Creation are the steps of the ascension, adopted byHebrew word-symbol – “יום” (day). The Afflatus about evolution of the world is delivered not as a scientific treatise, but in a special form called a “Divine protocol” (Шифман И.Ш., 1993).  Each word, eachphrase in this text is a formula, having severaldimensions.

      This point of view allows connecting the Divine Creation and evolutionnoncontradictorily. But such evolution will not happen by Darwin’s mechanisms. Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism don’t need the Creator, since all mystical reasons eliminated from the pattern of evolution.

      Despite all the contentiousness of Darwin’s theory, we must remember: Ch. Darwin didn’t excludethe initial act of Divine creation (see the concluding paragraph of “The Origin of Species”) (Дарвин Ч., 1926).

      The mainconclusion is that: the evolution has a cleartrend, an aim. But if there is an aim it is necessary the presence of a purpose, and we must recognize the presence of Higher Intellect. 

 10.  Results of Study of the Idea of Evolution

  The conclusion of these lessons-reflections is that the universe is the “creativelaboratory” of God, in this laboratory the Design of God opens gradually. The motional power of such an evolution is the love of the creation for Creator This idea is present at proceedings of French theologian and scientist P.T.de Chardin. This is the pureessence of evolution. Such evolution doesn’t enter into the conflict with the idea of Divine Creation, it can’t be realized without God.The Russiantheologian N. Fioletov wrote: “The idea of evolution, the development of species can’t be examined as a conflicting to the Christian doctrine about the Divine creation of world” (Фиолетов Н.Н., 1992).

      Therefore theevolution as the development of the Design of God, as its realizationin the material world, as the movement to God’s aim - such evolution forms the harmonic unity with Divine Afflatus.

      I believe the study of the evolutional biologygives the schoolchildren a wonder of greatness of God’s Design and allows to understand, that the scientific truth may and must serve to the Truth of Afflatus.  So the evolutional biology becomes one of the ways of the Knowledge of God.

      I am sure, the presented course leads to a complete comprehension of Revelation, to the truth of God, to realization of joyful meeting of scientific and divine thinking. Thus, the given course is an attempt to find of a compounded point of view on a pattern of the evolving world.

   11. Summary

 In this article I have tried to find the answer to the question, whether science, in particular – evolutionary biology, is capable of contributing to the Christian education and formation of religious world outlook of pupils. I have created a special program for teaching in the Secondary School - the course “Introduction to Christian natural sciences”. It intended for teaching in the 10th and 11th forms of general educational orthodox schools of Russia. The basic purpose of the course is the formation of the Christian world outlook of school students on the basis of the data of modern sciences, withdrawal of a far-fetched “conflict of a science and religion” and, on the contrary, statement them in a think, that a scientific and religious pattern of the world can and should be indivisible, as the world was created by the God.

       The course is based on a principle of teleology, which leads to theology. The main idea of the course is to show that the origin, development and formation of the world are the result of Divine creativity. The creation was from the very beginning carried out according to some purpose – The Design of God.  The basic theological idea of the course, its so-called conceptual dominant, combining all educational material, and which this educational material should illustrate, is the following: “Religion and science on the way to knowledge of Truth”. The teaching in the 11th  form of evolutionary idea – the central problem of modern biology – is based on these principles.

      Thus, the aim of evolutionary biology is the comprehension of wisdom of the Creator through His traces in the world.

      So the presented course development on a basis of teleology is a consecutive continuous formation of the Christian world outlook of the pupils on the basis of the data of the modern evolutionary biology, perceived through a prism of Christian divinity.

      The pupils study the different points of view about the evolution as deep as possible. The formation and the development of the idea of evolution is traced from the moment of its origin in the mind of the ancient-Greek philosophers (Anaximander, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Aristotle and others).  Further schoolchildren learn the proceedings of many scientists:  Sh. Bonnet, G. de Buffon, E. Darwin, J. Lamarck, A. Wallas and Ch. Darwin. Later the schoolchildren learn so-called “teleological” theories: nomogenesis by L.S. Berg, Christian evolutionism by P. Teilhard de Chardin, Diatropica by S.V. Meyen, the concept by A.A. Lubitschev and others.

      We try to ask ourselves the principal question: does the Divine Creation refute the biological evolution? Are Divine Creation and the biological evolution the strong alternatives to each other or not? We appeal to the text of Chapter 1 of Genesis and the theological commentaries. Attentive reading of the Story of Creation and the comments for it allows feeling thefundamental scheme of the evolutionaryscale of rank – the Design of God develops step-by-step in the world. Scriptural Six days of Creation are the steps of the ascension. This point of view allows connecting the Divine Creation and the evolutionnoncontradictorily. But such evolution will happen by non-Darwin’s mechanisms.

      The mainconclusion is that: the evolution has a cleartrend, the aim. But if there is the aim it is necessary the presence of the purpose, and we must recognize the presence of Higher Intellect. 

      Therefore theevolution as the development of the Design of God, as its realizationin the material world, as the movement to God’s aim - such evolution forms the harmonic unity with Divine Afflatus.

  12. References

  1.  Берг  Л.С.  (1977). «Труды по теории эволюции». Наука, Ленинград.
  2. «Биологический энциклопедический словарь» (1989), Советская энциклопедия, Москва.
  3. Воронин Н.Н.  (1999). «Развитие эволюционных идей в биологии», Прогресс-Традиция., Москва.
  4. Good News Study Bible (1986). Thomas Nelson Publishers., New York.
  5. Дарвин Ч. (1926) «Происхождение видов путем естественного отбора или сохранение избранных пород в борьбе за жизнь», П.С.С., т.1, книга 2,.   Государственное издательство, Москва-Ленинград
  6. Дарвин Э. (1960) «Храм Природы».  Наука, Москва-Ленинград
  7. EldredgeN., GouldS.J. (1972).“Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism”// Schopf. Models in  Paleobiology, San Francisco, p.82.
  8. Ламарк Ж.-Б. (1955). «Философия зоологии», АН СССР,  Москва.
  9. Любищев А.А. (1982). «Проблемы формы, систематики и эволюции организмов». Наука, Москва.
  10. Мейен С.В. (1974). «О соотношении номогенетического и тихогенетического аспектов эволюции». Журнал общей биологии, т.35, №3, с.353-364.
  11. Полкинхорн Дж. (1997). «Вера глазами физика»., Библеско-богословский институт св. апостола Андрея, Москва.
  12. Св. Василий Великий (1900). «Беседы на Шестоднев». Паломник, Москва.
  13. Св. Григорий Нисский (1995). «Об устроении человека». Ахиома, Санкт-Петербург.
  14. Св. Иоанн Златоуст   (1993). «Беседы на книгу Бытия». Издательство Московской Патриархии, Москва.
  15. Уоллес А.Р.  (1911).  «Дарвинизм»,  Москва.
  16. Фиолетов Н.Н. (1992). «Очерки христианской апологетики»,  Москва.
  17. Шарден Пьер Тейяр (1987). «Феномен человека». Наука,  Москва.
  18. Шифман И.Ш. (1993) «Учение. Пятикнижие Моисеево». Республика,  Москва.

 
 Biodata of Galina Muravnik

  Muravnik Galina Leonidovnagraduated from the Biological faculty of the Moscow State University (Russia) in 1979 and  specialized at the department of genetics. In 1985 she finished a post-graduate course at the Institute of Genetics and Selection of Microorganisms (Moscow).  Alongside with it she attended the lectures in various fields of Theology at Father Alexander Men’ Open Orthodox University. In 1998 she finished the course on orthodox pedagogic and pedagogical skills.

      In 1992 G. Muravnik turned to teaching at the Orthodox Lyceum of Moscow. She created an author's program with the purpose of implementing a harmonious synthesis of the modern evolutionary biology and the Christian divinity. As a result there appeared the course which is called “The Introduction to Christian Natural Sciences and which G. Muravnik has been teaching in an orthodox school of Moscow during all these years.

      Now  G. Muravnik works as a teacher of biology in the Moscow Orthodox Lyceum of Spiritual Culture named after Venerable Seraphim of Sarov (in 8-11 forms) and  as a lecturer  in  the St. Andrew’s Biblical theological institute.

 

 
 

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Index:

 

Biological

 

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